History
1. Who were the Freedom Riders and what did they do?


In the early 1960s, the Freedom Riders, an organization by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), rode through the South seeking integration, desegregation, of the bus, rail, and airport terminals.
News report by Sid Moody, in 1962, says:
“Last year’s Freedom rides traveled a highway cobbled with blood and violence. What has come of the troubled journey? Will there be more?
Scores were injured in attempts to integrate Southern bus terminals. Hundreds were jailed. But some nine months later, a growing number of terminals have been desegregated.”

"African American Odyssey: The Civil Rights Era (Part 2)." Global Gateway: World Culture & Resources (Library of Congress). 21 Mar. 2008. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9b.html>.

2. What was the Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-In and what was its aftermath?


A&T College students start sit-in (protest, strike) at luncheon counters of F, W. Woolworth Co. starting a movement, trying to stop discrimination in particular place.
4 leaders include:
· Joseph McNeil
· Franklin Mclain
· Billy Smith
· Clarence Henderson
“The Woolworth’s lunch counter sit-in started out with four students and a modest idea spurred on by the brutal killing of 14-year-old Emmett Till. But in just one short week, the non-violent act exploded into a mass protest that gripped the South and revived action in the Civil Rights Movement.”
external image greensboro4.jpg

· Syres, Marvin. "Woolworth Made Target For Demonstration Here." Greensboro Sit-Ins: Launch of a Civil Rights Movement : Home. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. http://www.sitins.com/.

Day-by-day outline of the Greensboro sit-in:

  1. On February 1, 1960, Four North Carolina A&T college students enter Woolworth’s Luncheonette and make small purchases, they save their receipts to prove they are customers. They then take seats at the whites-only lunch counter. But even after they are denied service, they remain seated. Woolworth’s closes early to end the incident, but the “Greensboro Four” promise to return the next day.
  2. On February 2, 1960, the Greensboro Four return to Woolworth’s. They again sit at the lunch counter. Reporters and local TV news crews gather at Woolworth’s. The intense television coverage helps spread the protest to High Point, NC by the next day.
  3. February 3, 1960, when the store opens, students flood Woolworth’s to get seats, but there is a growing opposition, taunting of the strike. The Greensboro sit-in is carried on National news.
  4. February 4th, female Bennett College and three white Greensboro Women’s College students join the sit-in.
  5. February 5th, a growing 300 students protest at Woolworth’s. Sit-in movement spreads to almost 40 cities across the US.
  6. February 6th, 1,000 protesters and observers fill Woolworth’s. Greensboro comes to a virtual standstill while the sit-in spreads to nearby department store. Bomb threat is made and stores close.
  7. February 7th-Students decide to suspend protest, giving Greensboro a chance to agree to demands but, when negotiations fall flat, sit-in soon resumes.
  8. July 26, 1960, Woolworth’s finally decides to desegregate lunch counter.

· Wright, Diana. "Independent Lens . FEBRUARY ONE . The Sit-In | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/februaryone/sitin.html.


3. Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested on December 1st for not giving up her seat on a bus for a Caucasian person (MLK Timeline). This inspired a young preacher named Martin Luther King to step in and take action. He believed in peace, and did something very closely related to another civil rights leader, Gandhi. He told many other African Americans to boycott the Montgomery, Alabama buses and walk to where they were going. This was a huge loss of income for the public transportation departments and a year later on December 21st the buses in this city desegregated (MLK Timeline).

4. In 1952, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that it was unconstitutional for there to be segregation in the American school systems (African American Odyssey 1). This was a huge landmark in striving for full citizenship for all African Americans. This was decided after Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP argued for their case in what is now called Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (African American Odyssey 1).

5. What happened when James Meredith tried to enroll in the University of Mississippi?


He was rejected twice in 1961. He went to complain to the district court that he was denied the admission to go to the University of Mississippi because of his color. He ended up getting to go to the University. The attorney General, Robert Kennedy helped James Meredith by sending marshals to protect him because he might get lynch. He graduated from the University of Mississippi in 1964.
"James Meredith." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmeredith.htm.


USAmeredith.jpg
James Meredith
James Meredith
"James Meredith." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmeredith.htm.

6. Why was Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech so powerful and what did it inspire?

His speech was so powerful because he was talking about his life. All of the marchers were touch by his speech when they heard it. It inspires everybody because everybody has a dream like him. He was 34 when he gave his speech in Washington D.C. This was a message to all the people to see that everybody is equal and that everybody has a dream not only them. He said he had a dream and that he still had it.
"Martin Luther King Jr." The Seattle Times | Seattle Times Newspaper. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/special/mlk/>. 


MLK
MLK
"Martin Luther King Jr." The Seattle Times | Seattle Times Newspaper. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/special/mlk/>.

7. Who was Malcolm X and what is he known for?
"Biography." MalcolmX.com. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.malcolmx.com/about/bio.html>.
  • Civil rights activist
  • He was Islamic
  • Graduated from junior high
  • His dream was to be a lawyer but his teacher said that was unrealistic for a black so he dropped out of school
  • Went to Harlem and started to commit crimes
  • In 1942 he was organizing narcotics, prostitution, and gambling rings
  • He got arrested in 1946 for burglary
  • He was sentenced to 10 years in prison
  • During that time he started to further his education
  • Then he found The Nation of Islam (NOI)- a Muslim religion
  • 1952 he became a devoted follower and he had a new surname “X”
  • He thought “Little” was a slave name so he chose “X” to signify is lost tribal name
  • Was appointed a minister and a national spokesman for the NOI
  • Established mosques in places like Detroit and Harlem
"Historical Photo Gallery." MalcolmX.com. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.malcolmx.com/about/photos.html>.



8. What were the major provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
"Our Documents - Civil Rights Act (1964)." Welcome to OurDocuments.gov. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=old&doc=97>.

  • Signed in by president Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964
  • Banned discrimination in public
  • Schools and other public facilities had to be integrated such as libraries and pools
  • Employment discrimination became illegal
  • Made employment opportunities equal
  • Outlawed segregation in businesses

"File:LBJ Civil Rights Act Crowd.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LBJ_Civil_Rights_Act_crowd.jpg>.


9. ring the Civil Rights Movement African Americans showed resistance. There were lunch counter sit-ins at which blacks sat at all white lunch counters and ordered food. They did not receive food but stayed until closing time. They also held protests. They had marches to protest the laws against them. The march on Washington was one of the biggest. They also held bus boycotts in which no blacks would ride the bus because of the unfair treatment. Also they had freedom rides where blacks would ride around the south and protest.
("The Civil Rights Era." African American Odyssey. 21 Mar. 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9b.html>.)

10)
States were not allowed to give to give new black voters literacy test or to make them interpret the constitution or other things to exclude African Americans from voting due to the Voting Rights Act. Before this, only 23% of Blacks that were of voting age were registered but after the Voting Rights Act 61% of African Americans that were of voting age were registered.






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"The U.S. Civil Rights Movement: Fighting for Acceptance in a Judgemental Society | Trends Updates." Trends Updates - Gadgets, Fashion, Automobile, Environment. 13 May 2003. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://trendsupdates.com/the-us-civil-rights-movement-fighting-for-acceptance-in-a-judgemental-society/>.


James Meredith." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmeredith.htm>.